Mechanism of Modafin action
Despite the fact that dozens of his scientific studies have been carried out over the 20 years of its existence, there is still no complete picture of the understanding of the effect of modafinil on the human body. On the basis of modern data, the adequate psychostimulating effect of the drug is due to the complex action at the level of receptors and the transmission of an electrical impulse to the central nervous system. Corresponding reactions and some effects are recorded empirically (empirically).
Dopaminergic component of action
Modafin has an effect on several parts of the brain. Pronounced changes in chemical composition are recorded in the frontal (prefrontal) lobe of the cerebral cortex, structures of the amygdala and striatum. In these areas, the concentration of monoamines – neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, increases. These substances initiate a certain chain of chemical reactions leading to a change in the electrical parameters of the membranes of nerve cells, which is necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses. Thus, the psychostimulating effect is achieved by increasing the concentration of the main monoamines in the brain, as a result of which the rate of onset and transmission of the nerve impulse increases. The concentration of monoamines increases due to inhibition of the reuptake of dopamine molecules and the subsequent activation of its synthesis.
Modafin Effect on the hypothalamus
The processes of sleep and wakefulness are largely controlled by the hypothalamus, a small part of the diencephalon. Orexin neurons localized in it and in some other departments are actively involved in maintaining wakefulness and regulating eating behavior. Their total number is small, but numerous processes extend from each neuron reaching almost all parts of the brain. Modafin activates the orexin type of neurons, which leads to the initiation of the synthesis of orexin (hypocretin) and further enhance wakefulness, increasing concentration of attention.
The drug also increases the synthesis of histamine in the structures of the hypothalamus. Histamine is a mediator involved in a number of immunological mechanisms, activating inflammatory reactions, and also playing a role in the processes of arousal. An increase in histamine concentration triggers the activation of norepinephrine receptors. The active substance Modafin also reduces the production of GABA – the leading neurotransmitter that provides the process of inhibition.